بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْم
Adapted from nyk.info
NOTE: All biblical citations are made from the ESV unless noted otherwise; this is not to imply in any way full accuracy of the translation, but rather, to be in line with academic popularity.
Jesus PBUH prophesied someone to come after him, as recorded in the gospel of John, and these are the relevant passages:
“And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper (Paraclete), to be with you forever, even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you.
“But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.”
“But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness about me.”
“Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you.. And when he comes, he will convict the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment: concerning sin, because they do not believe in me; concerning righteousness, because I go to the Father, and you will see me no longer; concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world is judged. I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you.”
This topic has been discussed in almost all Muslim-Christian dialogues. The Muslim presentation of this is not persuasive to all Christians because of the way in which this figure is presented in the gospel of John is to show that he is the Holy Spirit; John 14:26 explicitly states that he is the Holy Spirit in all the earliest manuscripts. Furthermore, John 14:17 states that he cannot be seen, and that he lives with the disciples, and that in the earliest manuscripts, “He is in you” (in the present tense). Christians do not think that there is even a possibility that there is a prophet after Jesus PBUH, however, there is not any statement in the bible stating that Jesus PBUH is the last prophet. On the contrary, there is a passage in the gospel of Matthew that contradicts the idea that Jesus thought he was the last prophet:
“Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves. You will recognize them by their fruits. Are grapes gathered from thornbushes, or figs from thistles? So, every healthy tree bears good fruit, but the diseased tree bears bad fruit. A healthy tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a diseased tree bear good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. Thus you will recognize them by their fruits.”
Here Jesus is comparing true prophets and false prophets with healthy trees and diseased trees, respectively, and he is teaching Christians to recognize the prophets by their fruits – a strange thing to say if he claimed or said he was the last prophet. To further demonstrate that Jesus PBUH never thought of himself to be the last prophet, according to the gospel of Matthew:
“Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify, and some you will flog in your synagogues and persecute from town to town,”
He says that he will send prophets and that the Jews will kill and crucify them. But what about this figure known as the Paraclete whom Jesus PBUH said would come?
By approaching this topic academically, we can ask what is the meaning of the word “paraclete” which is used for this figure coming after Jesus PBUH? It comes from the Greek “parakletos” which means an advocate/intercessor/helper but the literal meaning of it is “one who is called to the side of”. A “Paraclete” is someone who is called beside people to defend them like a lawyer in court. He will convict people (John 16:8) and testify (John 15:26). These are things someone does in court. How does the Holy Spirit fulfill this? He may inspire people to speak but he does not defend the people or speak for them or stand beside them. This description fits a human individual who will stand beside the people of God and defend them and be a spokesman for them. Some Muslims have argued that the original word was “periklutos” which means “praised one” (the name of Prophet Muhammad PBUH). However, this argument is considered weak since it has no biblical evidence backing it up.
Now, what does the Arabic word “Nabi” mean etymologically? The “Oxford Dictionary of Islam” defines “Nabi” as “Prophet; one who announces. Person called by God…”. So, the two words, “Paraclete” and “Nabi” are connected in meaning. Furthermore, in his commentary on the gospel of John, Raymond Brown defined “Paraclete” as “intercessor, mediator, spokesman”. Sensing this meaning, the “Bible in Living English” translation by Steven Byington translates “Paraclete” as “Spokesman”. According to the bible itself, though, is the paraclete a prophet, a mediator, and a spokesman? Yes, because in Exodus 7:1, when Moses PBUH asks God for someone to speak for him, God says to Moses PBUH “I have made you a god to pharaoh and your brother Aaron will be your prophet”. So, Aaron (Haroon) PBUH is the spokesman of Moses and mediator between Moses and pharaoh. How is the Holy Spirit a Spokesman? According to the Christian tradition, the Holy Spirit inspired the New Testament, but how did he become a spokesman?
Jesus PBUH is called a Paraclete in 1 John 2:1 because he is an intercessor, nabi (Prophet), spokesman, and a mediator between the people like him and God. So, this description (Paraclete) is suitable for a human intercessor or spokesman. John 16:13 describes prophetic functions regarding the Paraclete.
Raymond Brown noted that the gospel of John went through five editorial phases until it reached the final form we have today. He also suggested that the same sayings and themes were written down in two collections in John 14 and John 16 and that there was more than one author of John, with the final redactor adding John 15–17 after an initial completion of the Gospel. Why is that though? Many biblical scholars have noted that there is a discontinuity in John chapters 13 to 17. Let’s take a closer look:
“I will no longer talk much with you, for the ruler of this world is coming. He has no claim on me, 31 but I do as the Father has commanded me, so that the world may know that I love the Father. Rise, let us go from here..”
This continues smoothly when one reads on:
“When Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples across the brook Kidron, where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered.”
But to make this smooth continuation, one needs to skip three chapters., jumping from the end of John 14 to the start of John 18. Jesus says at the end of chapter 14 that he will not speak more, and he does not. He says “let us leave” and he leaves right away with his disciples. However, in John 15, Jesus immediately starts a new discourse until John 17 right after saying that he will not speak much more. This is strange since in John 14:30, Jesus says that the “ruler of this world is coming”, which is a reference to Satan. However, it has been noted in many Christian commentaries that Jesus was specifically referring to Judas leading the soldiers to arrest Jesus. For example, Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers states that “[t]he prince of evil is here regarded as working in and by Judas, who is carrying out his plans and doing his work”. Thus, there was absolutely no reason for Jesus to continue speaking in chapters 15–17.
Professor Bart Ehrman also noticed this in a blog entitled “The Most Intriguing Evidence that John Used Sources”. This shows that John chapters 15 to 17 were squeezed in between 14 and 18, thus pushing these two apart.
Another indication that these chapters were inserted between 14 and 18 is to notice the contradiction between John 13-14 and John 16.
“But now I am going to him who sent me, and none of you asks me, ‘Where are you going?’” John 16:5
While in John 13:36, it says:
“Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, where are you going?” …”
“Thomas said to him, “Lord, we do not know where you are going. How can we know the way?”” John 14:5
Furthermore, Ehrman says in the blog referenced above “[t]here is a lot of repetition between John 14 and 16 because they were in fact, two accounts of the same event, joined together”. He then says that the reason this contradiction is present is that the question of where Jesus is going was in the other source (John 13-14). C.K Barrett also suggests in his commentary that John 14 and John 15-17 might be considered as alternative versions of the last discourse.
One needs to look at the repetition between chapters 14 and 16 to get a sense of what is going on. As Norman Nagel explains:
“The agreement (between 14 and 16) extends not only to the overall flow of thought (announcement of going, the question whither, the promise of the Paraclete, the promise of seeing again, what is said of this seeing again, completion of the instruction, again announcement of going , the faith of the disciples, the kiss of peace [placed differently] ) but also at several places the same words”.
(Announcement of going John 13:33 and John 16:5a)
John 13:33 “…‘Where I am going you cannot come.” >>
John 16:5a “Now I am going to him who sent me…” <<
(The question whither, John 13:36 and John 16:5b)
John 13:36 Peter asks, “where are you going?” >>
John 16:5b “…. None of you asks me ‘where are you going?’ <<
John 14:1 “Let not your hearts be troubled…” >>
John 16:6 “…. sorrow has filled your heart” <<
(Promise of the prayer heard, John 14:13-14 and John 16:23)
John 14:14 “You may ask me anything in my name and I will do it” >>
John 16:23 “…..whatever you ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you” <<
(Condition for sending the Paraclete)
John 14:15-16 – Obeying Jesus’ commandments
John 16:7 – Jesus’ departure
(Promise of seeing again, John 14:19 and John 16:16)
John 14:19 “Yet a little while and the world will see me no more, but you will see me. Because I live, you also will live” >>
John 16:16 “A little while, and you will see me no longer; and again a little while, and you will see me.” <<
(what is said of this seeing again, John 14:22 and John 16:17)
John 14:22 Judas (not Iscariot) said to him, “Lord, how is it that you will manifest yourself to us, and not to the world?” >>
John 16:17 “”So some of his disciples said to one another, “What is this that he says to us, ‘A little while, and you will not see me, and again a little while, and you will see me’; and, ‘because I am going to the Father’?” <<
(Completion of instruction, John 14:25 and John 16:25)
John 14:25 “These things I have spoken to you while I am still with you.”
John 16:25 “I have said these things to you in figures of speech.”
(again announcement of going, John 14:28 with John 16:28)
John 14:28 “…. If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I”
John 16:28 “…. and now I am leaving the world and going to the Father.”
(The faith of the disciples, John 14:29 and John 16:30-32)
“And now I have told you before it takes place, so that when it does take place you may believe.” John 14:29 >>
John 16:30-32 “…. this is why we believe that you came from God.” Jesus answered them, “Do you now believe? “Behold, the hour is coming, indeed it has come, when you will be scattered, each to his own home, and will leave me alone.…” <<
Notice how in John 16, Jesus questions the disciples’ belief while in John 14 the negative behavior of the disciples is absent.
(The greeting of peace, John 14:27 and John 16:33)
John 14:27 “Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you.….”
John 16:33 “I have said these things to you, that in me you may have peace.….”
It becomes clear that there are two accounts of the same theme.
Hermann Sasse is another scholar who noted this. Peter and Thomas ask, “Where are you going?” in 13:36 and 14:5 but Jesus says, “None of you asks me “Where are you going?” in 16:5. Sasse said that the only possible explanation is that John 14 attempts to displace the negative presentation of the disciples in John 16:5b. Another thing is that in John 16:32, the disciples fall away and leave Jesus all alone (another negative behavior) while in the Parallel in John 14:29, there is no negative behavior reported from the disciples. Sasse also notes that in John 14:13-14 Jesus says to his disciples that they may ask him anything in his name and Jesus will do it for them, i.e., the prayer is directed to Jesus, while in John 16:23, the prayer is directed to the Father (also see John 15:16). Sasse takes the prayer to the Father to be original in John 15 and 16. John 15-17 also have the most unitarian passage in the entire the New Testament (John 17:3), which also reflects Jewish Christian theology.
With Hermann Sasse’s observations, it becomes clear that John 16 is the earlier account. Sasse said that “[t]hese observations show us that in 16:4b-33 the older, original formulation is preserved.” John 13:31-14:31 was present in the early written form of the gospel, as Raymond Brown suggested, but the content of John 14 is later than John 16.
Additionally, although it has not been observed by biblical scholars, In John 14:17, it says that the paraclete lives with the disciples, and in the original reading of the P66 (125-174 AD) and P75 (175-199 AD) manuscripts, he is already in them. John 16:7 (the other account), however, says that he will only come after Jesus PBUH departs. Which is it? Is he already in them and living with them or not to come until after Jesus PBUH leaves? Raymond Brown said that the future tense in John 14:17 might be a scribal correction to avoid the Holy Spirit indwelling the disciples at that time.
The readings of the P66 and P75 manuscripts read in the present tense (“is in you”), so this is most likely to be the original reading:
Once one realizes that John 15-17 is an earlier version of the farewell discourse, then they can be read differently from John 14. A reader can easily connect the one spoken about in John 16 with Deuteronomy 18:18 where it speaks of a prophet like Moses PBUH who will come.
“I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers. And I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.” Deuteronomy 18:18
“when a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the word does not come to pass or come true, that is a word that the LORD has not spoken; ” Deuteronomy 18:22
“for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come.” John 16:13
They match exactly. Additionally, the test of prophethood in Deuteronomy 18:22 is to make true predictions and that is exactly what the paraclete will do. It would have been more accurate if he said, “he will inspire you” in John 16:13, but he said, “whatever he hears he will speak”. This is the description of a prophet like Deuteronomy 18:18.
So, if one puts two and two together, there will be someone coming after Jesus PBUH who will be like Moses PBUH. It says, “I will put my words in his mouth”, and Muhammad PBUH is the only person who fulfills this literally because the Quran is the literal word of God from start to finish. It cannot be Jesus PBUH because when he spoke, did he speak in the first person? No, the phrasing was from him. In Islam, there are the ahadith that resemble the gospels in terms of reporting what Muhammad PBUH said, just as the gospels purportedly report what Jesus PBUH said. More than this, it says in Deuteronomy 18:19 “I myself will call to account anyone who does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name.”
The verse clearly says that these words that this prophet speaks will be spoken in God’s name. The prophet PBUH is also the only one who fulfills this literally because the Quran starts with “In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful” in every chapter except for one. “Allah” is a name and a reference to the one and only God in Arabic.
“A Dictionary of the Bible” by Reverend James Dow, under the heading “Moses”, states the following:
“As a statesman and lawgiver Moses is the creator of the Jewish people. He found a loose conglomeration of Semitic people, none of whom had been anything but a slave, and whose ideas of religion were a complete confusion. He led them out and he hammered them into a nation, with a law and a national pride, and a compelling sense of being chosen by particular God who was supreme. The only Man in history who can be compared even remotely to him is Muhammad”.
So, Muhammad PBUH is the only man in history who can be compared with Moses PBUH.
Christians sometimes quote Deuteronomy 34:10 to say that to be like Moses means to know God face to face and do miracles like he did. However, Deuteronomy 34:10 is not a limitation on the Deuteronomy 18 passage because it does not mention that these are the only ways that a prophet can be like Moses PBUH. Nevertheless, the Prophet PBUH did perform miracles and knew Allah face to face.
Moreover, Jewish commentaries like the famous Chumash Jewish commentary states “The Sages note the Torah’s statement (Deuteronomy 34:10) here that in Israel there will never be a Prophet like Moses implies that among the non-Jewish nations there could be such a prophet”.
So, even Jewish commentaries on that verse exclude any Jewish prophet who will come who will be like Moses PBUH.
If there are two versions of the paraclete prophecy, one about the holy spirit, and one about a prophet, which one is more likely to be the original? They cannot both be true because it is shown that they are in fact two variant accounts of the same event. The prediction of a prophet is much more credible because it is inconceivable that someone would fabricate it.
Christians claim that the one spoken about in Deuteronomy 18 is Jesus. The context of Deuteronomy 18:15-18 is that the Jews did not want to listen to God’s voice again lest they die, so they want him to speak to them through a prophet. Therefore, God says that he will send a prophet like Moses. However, if this prophet is Jesus, then did not the people listen to God’s voice saying “This is my beloved son, with whom I am well pleased” in Matthew 3:17? So, Christians cannot say that Deuteronomy 18 is about Jesus because the Jews did hear the voice of God when Jesus was there according to the Christian narrative.
Also, in the passage, God is speaking about a prophet that he will send, and according to the Christian doctrine when God speaks in the Old Testament, he is speaking as the triune God. For example, in Isaiah 45, when God says, “and there is no god apart from me”, Christians say that this is the triune God speaking although it says “me”. Therefore, if Christians are consistent, then the prophet in Deuteronomy 18 cannot be Jesus because Jesus according to them is part of the triune God, and this passage is clearly making a distinction between God and the prophet whom he will send. Jesus did not send himself. This passage is not speaking about God incarnating as a man but a prophet that he will send. It says, “I will put my words in his mouth”, so did Jesus send himself and put his words in his own mouth? It does not make sense.
The Jews at the time of Jesus PBUH seemed to distinguish between the messiah and the prophet like Moses, and even John the Baptist (Yahya PBUH in Islam) acknowledges this distinction.
“And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?”
He confessed, and did not deny, but confessed, “I am not the Christ.”” And they asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” And he answered, “No.” John 1:19-21
John the Baptist acknowledges the distinction by replying “No” to the question “Are you the Prophet?”. They are speaking about the Prophet spoken about in Deuteronomy in 18:18 and clearly understood that this figure was distinct from the Messiah. Christians cannot say the Jews and John the Baptist are wrong because Jesus himself predicted that this figure would come after him as mentioned above (John 16:13).
In the book “Acts of the Apostles”, Peter, the chief disciple, gives a sermon and says that Jesus PBUH will stay in heaven until the time of restoration of all things comes when God will send that Prophet. That is the natural reading of Acts, but Christians however claim that Peter is speaking about Jesus.
“……. that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, whom heaven must receive until the time for restoring all the things about which God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets long ago. Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brothers. You shall listen to him in whatever he tells you.” Acts 3:19-22
Peter is saying that Heaven must receive him (Jesus) until the time comes for God to restore everything, and that time of restoration was spoken about by Moses in Deuteronomy 18 when God sends that Prophet who was to be like Moses.
Another concern for it being the Holy Spirit is that the Holy Spirit in Greek is neuter, while in the passages about the Paraclete, he is referred to using masculine pronouns in Greek. This is not normally used in that way for the Holy Spirit. He is referred to using gendered pronouns. Raymond Brown said that in John 14:17, the pronouns used are neuter (Holy Spirit is neuter) while in John 15:26, 16:7-15 the pronouns are masculine.
Brown mentions in his commentary on John that many scholars (such as Rudolf Bultmann and Hermann Sasse) believed that the paraclete was once an independent salvific figure (a male figure) later confused with the Holy Spirit, so the argument is actually backed up by many western scholars that a figure like Muhammad PBUH would come. They did not say it was Muhammad PBUH, but the job description of the Paraclete best fits him.
A major problem for the belief that it is the Holy Spirit in John 16 is the fact that this figure does not speak on his own but only what he hears. If the Holy Spirit is God, and he speaks only what he is told by a higher authority, then the three persons are not on equal footing with each other. Why is it not the case that the Father is told what to say? It would seem that there is a dynamic power in which the Father has greater authority than the Holy Spirit who is evidently a subordinate being. The answer is in John 17:3:
“And this is eternal life, that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.”
So apart from the fact that this verse clearly resembles the Islamic testimony of faith, the point is that it identifies the Father as the only true God, which is why he is the highest authority, and no one tells him what to say. That explains it well. That means that this figure whom Jesus PBUH is predicting cannot be God himself.
In addition, the Holy Spirit was already with and in the disciples (John 14:17) whereas the Paraclete is supposed to come after Jesus departs. Also, why is it better that Jesus goes away so that the Paraclete comes in John 16:7? If Jesus and the Holy Spirit are equal members of the trinity, then why is it better for one of them to leave so that the other comes? It is clear that the Paraclete is a superior entity.
There is also an interesting verse in Matthew’s gospel:
“Therefore I tell you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people producing its fruits.” Matthew 21:43
It is also interesting that God in the Old Testament says that he will make the Jews jealous by a foolish nation. This can only fit the Ishmaelites because even the mother of the Jews (Sarah) was jealous of the mother of the Arabs (Hajar), and the Arabs were foolish because they were idol worshipers and illiterate:
“…. I will make them envious by those who are not a people; I will make them angry by a nation that has no understanding” Deuteronomy 32:21
It is also noted that the kingdom in Matthew 21:43 will be given to “a nation” or “a people” (in the singular), so it cannot be referring to gentiles in general because Jesus would have said “nations”, as in the Old Testament. Only the Ishmaelites fit this.
Quran 62:2 “It is he who sent to the unlettered [people] a messenger from among themselves, to recite to them his signs, to purify them, and to teach them the book and wisdom, and earlier they had been in manifest error”
Genesis 49:10 is also connected to this. It says that the scepter will remain in the house of Judah until someone called “Shiloh” comes, and then the obedience of the people shall be to him. It is clear when reading that passage that this figure is not from the house of Judah, and is thus not a Jew. It can only be the Prophet PBUH.
There is even more evidence. God says in Deuteronomy 33:1-2 that his blessing will come to Paran. Paran is a desert in Arabia according to Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. Furthermore, according to Genesis 21:19-21, it is in the land of Ishmael PBUH that there is a well of water (which can only be the Zamzam well).
One of the most renowned authorities on pre-Islamic Arabian history/geography, Irfan Shahid, also states that Paran is in Western Arabia. An Israeli professor, Haseeb Shehada, in his translation of the Samaritan Torah identified the wilderness of Paran with Hijaz (Western Arabia).
Ibn Ezra, the famous Jewish commentator, identified the well, named Be’er Lachai, in Genesis 16:14 as the well of Zamzam in Makkah. He comments on Genesis 16:14 saying:
“Be’er Lachai means the well of him who will be alive next year. The well was so called because the Ishmaelites held the Hajj at this well. It is still in existence and is called the well of Zamzam”.
Genesis 24:62 says that prophet Isaac PBUH used to visit this well. The Targum Neofiti reads as follows:
“And Isaac was coming from the sanctuary of Shem the Great, to the well over which was revealed…”
Now in Genesis 24:62, it says that Isaac came from that well (in Makkah according to Ibn Ezra) but the targum says he came from the sacred house (sanctuary). Which sacred house is in Makkah? The answer is clear. Moreover, by connecting it to Paran which is in Western Arabia where there is a well of water, then it becomes clear that Paran where Ishmael lived is actually Makkah.
Some say Paran is in Sinai but even Mount Sinai is in Arabia (Galatians 4:25). More than this, Isaiah 42 speaks of a servant to come, and the crucial part comes in Isaiah 42:11, which says that Kedar (people of Arabia according to Isaiah 21:13-17) will rejoice and praise God and shout from the mountaintops. The only time when the people of Arabia have done this is at the pilgrimage to Mecca. The people of Arabia were pagans before the coming of Islam. Also, the NIV Study Bible says that this servant will be a new Moses based on verse 4 where it says this servant will bring a Law and judgement for the gentiles. This is connected to Deuteronomy 18:18 where it says that this prophet will be like Moses.
Moreover, the Keil-Delitzsch commentary on the Old Testament states that “[t]he Name Kedar is here the collective name of the Arabic tribes generally”.
The verse mentions Kedar (Arabic tribes) and Sela in Arabia since it is connected to Kedar. That can only be the Sela in Medina, not the one in Edom because Isaiah would have mentioned the Edomites rejoicing instead of the people of Kedar. Also, when did the people of Kedar rejoice for Jesus according to the Christian narrative?
Furthermore, in Isaiah 60:3-7, it speaks of the house of God where Gentiles and Kedar (descendants of Ishmael) perform sacrifices. When did gentiles and Arabs perform sacrifices in Jerusalem? They cannot be Arab Christians and gentiles because they believe Jesus to be the final sacrifice.
It also mentions Zion in that chapter. Zion in Hebrew means a parched place or a monument. Hitchcock’s Bible Dictionary defines Zion as “monument”, and the Kaaba is a monument. Lastly, the Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon defines “Zion” as a “parched place”.
Added to this, Psalm 84:4-7 speaks about a pilgrimage to a valley called “Baka” (an ancient name of Mecca). The GNT translation says “dry” valley of Baka. Mecca is a dry Valley as in Quran 14:37 where people do pilgrimage. It also mentions that they go from strength to strength, and Muslims in pilgrimage go from Mount Safa to Mount Marwa. It mentions a spring which can only be the Zamzam spring. The Cambridge Bible for School and Colleges specifically associated Baka with Mecca.
In the Septuagint, Psalm 84:6 reads “for there the law-giver will grant blessings”. Which lawgiver came to a valley named Baca? That can only be the prophet PBUH.
But some may ask, why does it have to be Muhammad PBUH? Why not someone else?
The answer is that the job description of the figure in John 15 and 16 best fits only Muhammad PBUH. Examining the text:
“I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come.” John 16:12-13
The phrase “he will guide you into all the truth” can also be translated as “He will teach you all truth”.
“Today I have perfected for you your Religion and have completed my favor upon you and approved Islam as your Religion” Quran 5:3
Jesus PBUH did not claim that he came with the completion of truth, but he says the one coming after him will. This fits perfectly. The only person in history who both claimed that he had come with the completion of religion and also proved his claim by bringing complete guidance is Muhammad PBUH. There is not any other person who fits this role except prophet Muhammad PBUH. Islam covers every aspect of life, even the small things (e.g., how to eat, how to sleep). Nothing was left out, so this description again can only fit Muhammad PBUH. The only religion and Sharia that includes everything, from how to go to the toilet all the way to managing the affairs of all of humanity, is Islam. This must have been what Jesus PBUH was referring to.
The other thing is that this person will foretell the future, but how does the Holy Spirit measure up to the many accurate predictions of Prophet Muhammad PBUH? Does the Holy Spirit tell Christians the future? Has a Christian ever come forward and predicted the future accurately by inspiration of the Holy Spirit? If Christians say, “Well the New Testament has prophecies…”, we can say that these prophecies are false, like Paul saying that Jesus PBUH will return in his lifetime in 1 Thessalonians 4:15; is this from the Holy Spirit as well? Is there any person other than Muhammad PBUH after Christ PBUH (of course, the Bible also ascribes false prophecies to Jesus) who foretold so many things and all his prophecies came true? This description of someone foretelling the future fits only Muhammad PBUH.
The book of Acts in the Bible narrates events after Jesus’ departure, and it is said there that the Holy Spirit came there, but there are some problems with claiming that the Paraclete is the Holy Spirit if one reads the book of Acts.
Acts 9:26 reads “And when he had come to Jerusalem, he attempted to join the disciples. And they were all afraid of him, for they did not believe that he was a disciple.”
Now if the Holy Spirit is guiding the disciples and Paul, how come the disciples are afraid of Paul who also has the Holy Spirit, and think that he is not a disciple? More than this, in Acts 21:24, James tells Paul to do the Nazarite vow so that everyone would know that he was not preaching against the law of Moses (which he was!). If James believed that Jesus was the final sacrifice as Paul and Christians today believe, then why did James ask Paul to join these purification rituals that include performing sacrifices? That makes no sense. Both have the Holy Spirit supposedly.
Furthermore, there are many problems in the world today, and Muhammad PBUH came with the solution to solve the problems of humanity, such as alcoholism, gambling, surplus women, racism, poverty, and more. Islam offered practical solutions to these problems. There was a recent study published by researchers at Oxford University and reported by major media outlets such as CNN. It showed that drinking even little bit of alcohol causes damage to the brain. There is no safe limit according to the study. Islam prohibited alcohol completely more than 1400 years ago, so the Prophet PBUH did guide into all truth, and not the Holy Spirit. The prophet PBUH said in Sunan Abi Dawud 3681 “If a large amount of anything causes intoxication, a small amount of it is prohibited.” How did the prophet PBUH know that?
Did the Holy Spirit solve even one world problem? Has a Christian ever come and said, “These are the teachings of the Holy Spirit that it has inspired me, and I wrote them down in this paper”? What new and beneficial things has the Holy Spirit taught that the disciples could not understand? They have to be the same across the board since they should come from the same source. To claim Holy Spirit’s inspiration is very subjective, and it cannot be verified. How does someone know this is the Holy Spirit inspiring him or he is just hearing voices? You can ask the same question to several Christians and get contradictory answers to the same question, and all of them claim inspiration. Furthermore, which denomination is correct? Which Bible canon is correct? Also, there are forgeries in the gospels that were only considered forgeries because of textual criticism and the discovery of an early manuscript, which is Codex Sinaiticus. Therefore, why didn’t the Holy Spirit inform those Christians that lived before that they were not actually reading Jesus’ words in the forged passages? To claim Holy Spirit’s inspiration is based on emotion rather than solid evidence and reason. Why did the author of Matthew change his source (the Gospel of Mark) if both Matthew and Mark had the Holy Spirit? Why did Paul say that Jesus abolished the law (Ephesians 2:15) while Jesus in Matthew 5:17 said that he had not come to abolish the law? It is the complete opposite. The Holy Spirit did not correct the mistakes that were in the Bible but the prophet PBUH did.
Exodus 31:17 says God rested after creating the heavens and the earth and was refreshed. That means he got tired. Quran 50:38 corrects that by saying “and no weariness touched him”. To believe that the Paraclete is the Holy Spirit creates many problems as shown.
“And when he comes, he will convict the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment:” John 16:8
The Greek word in “he will Convict” means also “to refute/prove/correct a wrong” with solid and compelling evidence.
“1651 elégxō – properly, to convince with solid, compelling evidence, especially to expose (prove wrong, connect).”
“to convict, refute, confute,….
to find fault with, correct;”
So it can be translated as “He will prove the world wrong/ correct the world/ refute the world/ convict the world”
Who best fits this description? One who will correct the world and prove them wrong. The only person is Muhammad PBUH. There is no other candidate. A parallel can be drawn from this as well. God sent many Israelite prophets to the Jews one after another to correct the Jews when they would go astray. The Paraclete seems to have a similar function here. This fits only Muhammad PBUH.
“Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you.” John 16:7
This makes sense if this is speaking about a chain of prophets where the current prophet needs to go so that the next one comes, just like with the Old Testament prophets.
One thing to note is that it does not say that he will “prove some people wrong” but that “he will correct/prove the world that they are wrong”. It seems he will come to correct a major misconception. The verse also implies that this person will have a major impact on the world. To demonstrate Muhammad’s PBUH impact, Michael Hart puts the Prophet PBUH as Number 1 of the most influential people in human history in his book “The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History”.
The verse also implies that the Paraclete is sent to the world, and this is a contrast to the Christians’ belief that the Holy Spirit is sent only to Christians.
“concerning sin, because they do not believe in me;” John 16:9
“They have certainly disbelieved who say, “Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary” while the Messiah has said, “O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.” Quran 5:72
Now, Quran 5:72 is spot on because it shows why they are wrong about sin when they said that Jesus PBUH is God (which is the sin they have done), so it literally proves them wrong and refutes them by quoting Jesus PBUH. It convicts and exposes them of their sin also since “they have certainly disbelieved” and it quotes Jesus PBUH to illustrate that they disbelieved in him. How did the Holy Spirit prove wrong/refute/correct the people that they are wrong about sin or anything for that matter? If it is translated as “refute/prove wrong”, then it can be interpreted that he will prove the world wrong that they do not actually believe in Jesus. Also, this means that the world is committing a sin thinking it is not a sin, and the Paraclete will prove them wrong (with solid evidence) and show them that they are actually committing sin, which is disbelief.
“Concerning righteousness, because I go to the Father, and you will see me no longer;” John 16:10
This shows that if Jesus PBUH were with them, he would have rebuked them for it. The reason they are wrong is that Jesus is not with them, and the Paraclete will show them why they are wrong on Jesus’ behalf. It cannot refer to Jews because Jews would not have listened to Jesus on righteousness even if he were with them. We need to make an important note here: this means that the world is doing something believing it to be righteous, but the Paraclete will show them why they are wrong and refute them/prove that they are wrong thinking it is righteous. “Righteousness” is an action, not beliefs. Therefore, this figure will convict the people of the world regarding their actions.
There is a parallel also in the Quran:
“And [beware the day] when Allah will say ‘O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to people ‘worship me and my mother as gods besides Allah’? …… [Jesus says] I only said to them what you commanded me, to worship Allah, my lord and your lord, And I was a witness over them as long as I remained among them, but when you took me up, you were the watcher over them.” Quran 5:116-117
In addition to this, the word in Greek also means to persuade/convince them that they are wrong with solid and compelling evidence. This is spot on because the Quran mentions many logical arguments to show why they are wrong, like in Quran 3:79 for example and many other verses.
So, this figure corrects and refutes the world on Jesus’ behalf regarding righteousness (John 16:10). This fits perfectly with what Muhammad PBUH did.
“He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you.” John 16:14
“All that the Father has is mine; therefore I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to you.” John 16:15
Brown said that verse 15 has been used to support the doctrine of the trinity but explained that this passage is talking about the revelation being delivered to people. He adds that the author of John 16 knew that ultimately that the Paraclete was the agent of the Father, and that the Paraclete was presenting the Father to people.
The GW translation renders John 16:15 as “Everything the Father says is also what I say. That is why I said, ‘he will take what I say and tell it to you’. Here it is translated based on the context, which is about the revelation that the Paraclete will deliver. This revelation comes from the Father.
Jesus is claiming great things for himself in John 16:15, but as James D.G. Dunn has shown that this is what the later gospels did especially, the gospel of John. In the Synoptic gospels, Jesus is preaching about the kingdom of God, but in John, he is preaching more about how great he is. James Dunn did the statistics for this. The word “Kingdom” was uttered by Jesus in the Synoptics between 18 to 47 times, while in John, it is uttered only 5 times. In contrast, the word “I” was said 118 times in John while only between 9 to 17 times the Synoptics. Therefore, there is an adjustment that needs to be taken for that when it comes to reading the Paraclete prophecy in John.
The Greek word for glorify/honor means to value and recognize someone as he really is in his true character. Now this also fits perfectly only with Muhammad PBUH. It means to say the truth about someone and in that way glorifying him. The Paraclete recognizes Jesus as he really was, not as later depictions. This is crucial.
The word for “glorify” in John 16:14:
“Cognate: 1392 doksázō (from 1391 /dóksa, “glory”) – glorify; properly, to ascribe weight by recognizing real substance (value). See 1391 (doksa).
“Glorifying (1392 /doksázō) God” means valuing Him for who He really is. For example, “giving (ascribing) glory to God” personally acknowledges God in His true character (essence)”.
[Jesus] said, “Indeed, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet. And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakat as long as I remain alive. And [made me] dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me a wretched tyrant. And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive” That is Jesus, the son of Mary – the word of truth about which they are in dispute. Quran 19:30-34
Other Bible translations of John 16:14, such as the MSG, render the verse as “He will honor me.” Did the prophet Muhammad PBUH honor Jesus PBUH? Yes.
The Paraclete will also give an honorable testimony about Jesus PBUH (John 15:26). The Greek word means to testify/bear witness, and this word means giving a good report about someone.
“b. emphatically; to utter honorable testimony, give a good report:…”
Also, how did the Holy Spirit testify about Jesus? This would imply that the Christians had a consistent view about Jesus PBUH from the start, but the fact is that this is not the case. The disciples believed in one person as God who is the Father (John 17:3 speaks about the disciples’ belief). Muslims, however, never disagreed on who Jesus was.
“Behold! the angels said: “O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah; Quran 3:45
This is a clear-cut testimony. There is not any other person after Christ PBUH who bore testimony about him this clearly. The phrase “He will testify/bear witness about me” fits only Muhammad PBUH. The meaning of John 15:26 is not just to mention Jesus (because many people have) but to testify/bear witness about him.
The Holy Spirit becomes personalized in these passages and only in these passages about the Paraclete, and where did that lead the Christians? It eventually led them to say the Holy Spirit is a separate person from God and then to the doctrine of the trinity. It is because they took statements that describe personal functions referring to a human person (such as speaking what is heard from God in John 16:13) and applied them to the Holy Spirit. This is why unitarians say the Paraclete is the spirit of Jesus himself because they cannot reconcile this description with their belief that the Holy Spirit, who is the Father himself according to them, does not speak on his own. However, Jesus is clearly speaking about someone else, so it cannot be Jesus himself.
What about other candidates?
Can it be Paul? No, since Paul made false prophecies like saying that Jesus will come in his lifetime in 1 Thessalonians 4:15 while the Paraclete’s prophecies should come true.
Did Paul deliver complete guidance? Paul’s message is focused on the cross and did not deliver complete guidance. Paul did not even claim to be a prophet.
Can it be Joseph Smith? How did he correct/refute the world? Did his prophecies come true? No, he made false prophecies. In 1843, he predicted that the US government would be destroyed within a few years. This is a false prediction as the US government still stands today.
Can it be the spirit of Jesus himself? The only people who claim this are unitarian Christians, but it cannot be Jesus himself because Jesus is clearly speaking about someone else, and Jesus uses in these passages the words “He” and “Me” as not referring to the same person. They are not interchangeable. Also, the same criticisms made about the Holy Spirit can be done to any spirit allegedly indwelling Christians whether it is Jesus’ spirit or the Holy Spirit.
There had been a movement in the early church called Montanism (also called “New Prophecy”) in the 2nd century, which believed that the paraclete was manifesting himself through Montanus. The Journal of Religion, published by the University of Chicago Press, states:
“Sometime before the end of the century a Roman presbyter named Gaius wrote a dialogue against Proclus, a powerful attack on the group of enthusiasts known as Montanists. In the course of this work he attacked the books on which they based their peculiar views. In the Apocalypse of John they had found the promise of an imminent new Jerusalem; In the forth Gospel they had found the promise of the paraclete which they believed they realized in their leader Montanus”.
The question is why did the Montanists interpret John in that fashion if John is clear that it is the Holy Spirit? Nowhere does John speak of the Holy Spirit enacting through man. The Paraclete in John is either the Holy Spirit or a man and the Montanists saw it as the latter, through Montanus.
In other words, they believed Montanus to be a prophet because of the Paraclete in John. Therefore, a case for prophethood can be made.
Another question that can be asked is why did the Montanists interpret John such that the Paraclete worked through one man, Montanus? It is in stark contrast to Christians today who argue the Holy Spirit was sent upon all Christians.
The answer to these questions can be answered by quoting Hans Wendish, a Biblical scholar who spoke about the Paraclete. He stated that “[i]n John the figure of a prophet witnessing, giving counsel, teaching, and disclosing the future is really fused with the Paraclete”.
Windisch said that these descriptions fit someone who is both a prophet and teacher which is why the Montanists were convinced that the Paraclete worked through one man, whom they believed was Montanus.
The Montanists were considered heretics sometime after the movement’s emergence, and the church father Tertullian was the best defender of this movement. They did not deny the doctrines of the church, and some “prophets” were associated with their movement.
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the prophecy at first “was held in honour, and the church acknowledged the charismatic gift of some prophets”. They were considered heretics later when “it became obvious that the Montanist doctrine was an attack on the Catholic faith” since the Montanist doctrine stated that the final revelation came through Montanus, and the church had to accept a new and final revelation.
There was also someone named “Mani” in the 3rd century who claimed to be the Paraclete in Persia. The CMC or Codex Manichaicus Coloniensis manuscript is the most reliable source to study the religion of Mani. It was discovered in 1970 CE. Mani is called Paraclete no less than 4 times (CMC 17, 4-7 also in 46, 1-3 and 63, 21-23). These quotations show that Mani considered himself to be the Paraclete.
The purpose of these examples is to show that the Muslim argument of the Paraclete being a human figure, rather than a spiritual figure, is not new. It was present in early Christianity, and the Muslim argument is supported by solid evidence as well.
Can the Paraclete be Mani or Montanus though? The short answer is no, because they did not fulfill the descriptions. For example, the Paraclete gives testimony of Jesus, but the only person who gave the clearest testimony about Jesus PBUH is Muhammad PBUH as revealed in Quran 3:45. The meaning of John 15:26 is not just to speak about Jesus but to testify about him. Secondly, they did not show the world to be wrong about anything. They did not bring complete guidance for People. Therefore, they are not good candidates.
1- Jesus sends the paraclete?
In John 15:26, he says that he will send him from the Father. It clearly says “from the Father” (referring to God).
Brown compares it with Luke 24:49 where Jesus sends the spirit, but he says that this passage (Luke 24:49) shows that the Father is the source of the spirit. Similarly, in John 15:26, the Father is the source of the Paraclete.
Also, the one spoken about in John 16 is the same as the one spoken about in Deuteronomy 18:18. In the latter, God sends him, and in John 15:26, he comes from the Father. Therefore, God is the source of the Paraclete. Also, in John 16:15, the Paraclete receives the revelation from the Father.
2- The Paraclete proceeds from the Father?
In the New Testament, all good things come “from the father”.
James 1:17 “Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shadow due to change.”
Some translations, such as the NASB, render the verses as “who comes from the Father”.
3- Jesus says “Spirit of Truth” so it must be a spiritual being not physical?
Yes, he mentions “Spirit of truth” in John 15-16, but it can refer to the spirit of a prophet (1 Corinthians 14:32, 1 John 4:1). Plus, Muhammad PBUH was known for his trustworthiness and truthfulness even before his prophethood, so this description fits him perfectly.
4– Jesus was talking to the disciples?
Yes, he mentions the word “You” to the disciples, but “You” does not always mean the immediate listeners. Christians maintain that the Prophet like Moses who was promised to Jews 1400 years before Jesus was Jesus. Jesus did not come to those Jews Moses was speaking to.
Also, Matthew 24:34 states:
“Truly I tell you, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened”.
So, if Christians want to say that the Paraclete was promised to the disciples, then they have to be consistent and say that Matthew 24:34 is a false prophecy. Matthew 24 speaks about the end times when Jesus will come back. Jesus said “This generation” referring to the generation he was speaking to, not a future one. Christians usually say that this refers to a future generation while they insist that the Paraclete is supposed to come to the disciples. That is inconsistent. There is also another example in Matthew 16:27-28.
5- The Holy Spirit came to the disciples at Pentecost in the book of Acts, so the Paraclete is the Holy Spirit?
Yes, but Acts is authored by the same person who authored the Gospel of Luke, and Luke says that the Holy Spirit will come to the disciples in Luke 24:49, but it does not mention the Paraclete, so the Holy Spirit coming in Acts is connected to Luke 24:49, not to the Paraclete in John. Plus, the argument of this document is to show that the Paraclete prophecy was originally about Muhammad PBUH, and it was shown why.
6- The Dead Sea Scrolls connects “Holy Spirit” with “Spirit of Truth”?
Yes, but that does not seem to be the usage of John for “Spirit of Truth”. 1 John 4:1-6 seems to suggest that “spirit” can refer to the spirit of a prophet. and 1 John 4:6 speaks about the spirit of truth and the spirit of falsehood regarding human beings:
1 John 4:6 “We are from God, and whoever knows God listens to us; but whoever is not from God does not listen to us. This is how we recognize the Spirit of Truth and the spirit of falsehood”.
7- The Paraclete gets told what to say by Jesus in John 16:13-14?
That is not true. They rely on John 16:14 in the NIV that states “he will receive from me what he will make known to you”, but that is not the correct translation for this verse. The Greek says, “he will take what is mine and declare it to you”, meaning he will take Jesus’ message and declare it. It does not say that Jesus will tell him what to say in the Greek text. Also, John 16:15 says The Paraclete receives the revelation to men from the Father.
8- John 7:39 says the spirit was later to be received, so the Holy Spirit was not with the disciples yet.
In John 7:39, the Holy Spirit was to be received later because Jesus at that time had not yet been glorified (or resurrected). John 7:39 refers to John 20:22 where the disciples receive the Holy Spirit after Jesus’ resurrection (glorification). The same verb is used in both verses (John 7:39 and John 20:22) which is “receive”. The Holy Spirit was received by the disciples while Jesus was with them. It cannot be referring to the Paraclete because John 16:7 states that the Paraclete will only come after Jesus departs. That is the criterion. The departure in the context of John 16:5-7 is referring to the ascension. Not to mention that this contradicts John 14:17 in the original reading where it states that the Holy Spirit was already in them and living with them.
This is a contextual academic approach to the prophecy and although some Christians may not accept this approach, the evidence is there, and biblical scholars have talked about it. The Prophet Muhammad PBUH is the best candidate for fulfilling the prophecy of the Paraclete, and it is evident that the Holy Spirit or anyone else does not meet the precise predictions made by Jesus PBUH in John 16 if it is taken to be an earlier version of the prophecy than John 14.
In all Christian-Muslim discussions on this topic, a Christian usually quotes John 14 especially verse 26 saying “Look Jesus says the Paraclete is the Holy Spirit”, while a Muslim quotes John 16:12-13 saying, “The Paraclete is obviously a human prophet because he is given here the description of what a prophet will do and it cannot be a divine being”, so the argument continues with one person quoting John 14 and the other quoting John 16. Each is quoting a separate saying of Jesus PBUH. However, as was shown in this document, the Muslim is quoting the earlier form of that saying.
John 16 is the earlier version of the prophecy that speaks about a prophet who is obviously the Prophet Muhammad PBUH. The job description can only apply to Muhammad PBUH.
Quran 7:157 “Those who follow the messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find written in what they have of the Torah and the Injeel (Gospel), He enjoins upon them what is good and forbids them what is evil. He makes the clean things lawful to them and prohibits all corrupt things, and removes from them their burdens and the shackles that were upon them. So those who believe in him and assist him, and succor him and follow the Light which has been sent down with him, it is they who shall prosper.”
 John L Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, 2003, p.225.
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.1136.
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.594.
 Bible Hub, Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers, https://biblehub.com/commentaries/ellicott/john/14.htm
 Bart Ehrman, 2020, https://ehrmanblog.org/the-most-intriguing-evidence-that-john-used-sources/
 C.K Barrett, The Gospel According to ST. John, 2nd Edition, The Westminster Press, 1978, p.470.
 Norman Nagel, Hermann Sasse Identifies the Paraclete, AtlaSerials ,1996, p.8.
 Norman Nagel, Hermann Sasse Identifies the Paraclete, AtlaSerials ,1996, p.9.
 Norman Nagel, Hermann Sasse Identifies the Paraclete, AtlaSerials ,1996, p.10.
 Norman Nagel, Hermann Sasse Identifies the Paraclete, AtlaSerials ,1996, p.9.
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.594.
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.640.
 Center for New Testament Restoration, John 14:17, (greekcntr.org).
 James L. Dow, Collin’s Gem Dictionary of the Bible, Collins, 1964, pp. 402-403.
 Artscroll Chumash Commentary on Deuteronomy, Stone Edition, Mesorah Publications, 1999, p. 187.
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.639.
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.1135.
 Irfan Shahid, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, 1984, p.325.
 Haseeb Shehada (1989). Translation of the Samaritan Torah, p.90. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
 Asher Weiser, Ibn Ezra: Perushi ha-Torah le Rabbainu Avraham Ibn Ezra (Yerushalayium: Mossad Harav Kook, 1977), p.151.
 The Aramaic Bible Targum Neofiti 1: Genesis, Vol 1A, p.127.
 NIV Study Bible, 1995 Edition, Zondervan; 10th Anniversary edition (December 10, 1995), p. 1069.
 Keil-Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament, 1991, p. 253.
 Study Light, Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary, https://www.studylight.org/lexicons/eng/hebrew/06726.html
 Bible Hub, Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, https://biblehub.com/commentaries/cambridge/psalms/84.htm
 Amy Woodyatt , Drinking any amount of alcohol causes damage to the brain, 2021, https://edition.cnn.com/2021/05/19/health/alcohol-brain-health-intl-scli-wellness/index.html
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.709.
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.716.
 James D.G Dunn, The Evidence for Jesus, The Westminster Press, 1985, p.34.
 History of the Church, Vol. 5, Deseret Book Co., 1978, p. 394.
 The Journal of Religion, University of Chicago Press, October 2015, pp.188-189.
 Hans Windisch, The Spirit-Paraclete in the Fourth Gospel, Fortress Press,1968, p.18.
 Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Montanism. Accessed 12 May 2021.
 Johannes van Oort, “The Paraclete Mani as The Apostle of Jesus Christ and The Origins of a New Church”, Academia, pp.9-10.
 Raymond Brown, The Gospel According to John XIII-XXI, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1966, p.638.